In March 2020, African finance ministers called for a $100 billion stimulus package to provide governments much-needed fiscal space and liquidity. UN Under-Secretary-General and Special Adviser on Africa, Cristina Duarte, believes that Africa should adopt a new approach to development financing, one that strengthens its systems and institutions to enhance domestic resource mobilization so it can fund most of its development and turn its fortunes around.
In explaining this new approach, Ms. Duarte says “Africa’s challenge is not the absence of liquidity or funds to finance development. Its problems are massive illicit financial flows that are draining funding capacity and the lack of ownership over natural resources, coupled with a whole narrative built around managing poverty instead of development, and depicting Africa as a poor continent in need of help from the international community.”
Africa loses $89 billion annually, about 3.7 percent of its gross domestic product (GDP), in illicit financial flows, according to the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The organisation reports that curbing such flows could enable the continent to retain substantial funds that can be directed to responding to the COVID-19 pandemic and to development.
Ms. Duarte, who heads the UN Office of the Special Adviser on Africa (OSAA), which works with the AU and other multilateral institutions to ensure coherent support to the continent, believes that African countries, as well as international financial and multilateral systems, need to change their approach to development financing in Africa.
This entails moving from a predominantly poverty management perspective to a development management approach. The poverty management approach identifies debt relief and official development assistance (ODA), among others, as the main tools for financing development, while the development management approach focuses more on domestic resource mobilization as the fundamental way to ensure sustainable financing. The latter approach is more sustainable and helps to safeguard developing countries’ ownership of their resources.
“African countries are responsible for building Africa’s new narrative by changing the thinking from relying on external assistance, which is much needed, to relying first on domestic and internal capacities and capabilities,” Ms. Duarte says, adding that tackling corruption, tax evasion and illicit financial flows are the cornerstones of successful domestic resource mobilization. African leaders also need to honour commitments under the Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development, especially to substantially reduce illicit financial flows, combat tax evasion and corruption, reduce the cost of remittances and support other efforts to strengthen domestic resource mobilization.
Ms. Duarte says this new thinking also means a shift in the perception of Africa as an aid-recipient continent to one that is a key stakeholder and an actor on the global stage, with the same rights and standing as any other region in the United Nations and other international organizations.
In addition, Ms. Duarte contends that Africa can leverage its potential on green industrialization by focusing on three key drivers: First, exercising ownership over natural resource management; second, moving up along global value chains; and lastly, taking advantage of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) to create integrated regional value chains. In this context, the development of African capital markets to mobilize the continent’s financial liquidity will be crucial.
She further recommends for financing solutions to be tailored to the unique circumstances of different categories of African countries, including Small Island Developing States (SIDS), Least Developed Countries (LDC) and Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDC).
Solutions should also be customized for countries in conflict situations and fragile middle-income countries with limited fiscal space, as they are vulnerable to external shocks. This will assist these countries to relieve the negative impact of COVID-19 on their economies and build back better, she says.
Finally, Ms. Duarte says, there is a need to enhance efficiency and to strengthen accountability in existing mechanisms. African countries need to constructively engage the various ongoing processes, notably the recently established High-Level Panel on International Accountability, Transparency and Integrity for Achieving the 2030 Agenda (FACTI Panel). The panel complements current efforts at enhancing development finance, especially through addressing illicit financial flows and fighting corruption.
“These are crucial measures to help African countries unlock resources to finance recovery and build better beyond COVID-19,” Ms. Duarte concludes.